Issue 2

Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety

Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 5–11

ISSN 2411-3174 (print version) ISSN 2411-0388 (online version)


Pérez de León A., Showler A.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, Kerrville, Texas, USA., e-mail:

Stegniy B. T., Kucheryavenko R. O., Kucheryavenko V. V., Gerilovych A. P., Filatov S. V.

National Scientific Center ‘Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine’, Kharkov, Ukraine

Li A.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

Teel P.

Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

McVey S.

United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, Manhattan, Kansas, USA

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Citation for print version: Pérez de León A., Showler A., Stegniy B. T., Kucheryavenko R. O., Kucheryavenko V. V., Gerilovych A. P., Filatov S. V., Li A., Teel P. and McVey S. (2015) ‘Soft tick sampling and collection’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety, 1(2), pp. 5–11.

Download PDF (online version)

Citation for online version: Pérez de León A., Showler A., Stegniy B. T., Kucheryavenko R. O., Kucheryavenko V. V., Gerilovych A. P., Filatov S. V., Li A., Teel P. and McVey S. (2015) ‘Soft tick sampling and collection’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. [Online] 1(2), pp. 5–11. Available at:

Summary. Soft, or argasid, ticks are challenging to sample for or to collect because of their mostly cryptic behaviors that involve crevices, animal burrows, animal nest materials, and digging into soil. Soft ticks generally do not stay attached to their hosts for more than 30 min, hence, examination of living and dead host animals should not be expected to detect specimens in numbers that represent substantial proportions of the total soft tick population in a given area. Sampling provides foundational information that is important for efforts to develop soft tick surveillance programs. Methods applied commonly to sample soft ticks include: manual examination of habitat substrate material, aspiration of host nests or burrows, trapping using CO2 or possibly other attractants such as pheromones and their analogs. Because African swine fever, caused by a virus, which is highly contagious and afflicts pigs and their close relatives, has been spreading from its usual range in Africa into the Ukraine, we discuss features of the disease and its soft tick (Ornithodoros spp.) vectors in order to indicate a contemporary situation involving the need for systematic argasid tick monitoring through sampling.

Keywords: argasid, attractants, collecting, soft tick, surveillance, sampling, African swine fever, trapping, pheromones, Ornithodoros


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