Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety
Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2017, Page 45
ISSN 2411-3174 (print version) ISSN 2411-0388 (online version)
Investigation of adaptation of Avian influenza viruses to mammalian species
Turan N. 1 , Ma W. 2 , Ma J. 2 , Liu Q. 2 , Bawa B. 2 , Richt J. A. 2
1 Istanbul University, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey, e-mail: email@example.com
2 Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
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Citation for print version: Turan, N., Ma, W., Ma, J., Liu, Q., Bawa, B. and Richt, J. A. (2017) ‘Investigation of adaptation of Avian influenza viruses to mammalian species’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety, 3(2), p. 45.
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Citation for online version: Turan, N., Ma, W., Ma, J., Liu, Q., Bawa, B. and Richt, J. A. (2017) ‘Investigation of adaptation of Avian influenza viruses to mammalian species’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. [Online] 3(2), p. 45. Available at: http://jvmbbs.kharkov.ua/archive/2017/volume3/issue2/oJVMBBS_2017032_045.pdf
Summary. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single stranded and segmented RNA viruses. They are zoonotic pathogens that continuously circulate in several animal hosts and undergo genetic drift and shift. These are responsible for causing human epidemics and sometimes pandemics. Avian influenza H5N1, H7N7, H7N9, and H9N2 viruses have been hypothesized to cause the next pandemic, although there is no clear evidence that they have been successfully maintained in humans. To date, how avian influenza viruses adapt to mammalian species is still not completely understood. We try to answer the following questions: • How fast do avian influenza viruses adapt to mammalian species? • How do avian influenza viruses cross the species barrier to adapt to mammalian species? To answer these questions, we performed three serial passages of a quail H9N2 virus in pigs and sequenced the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from pigs in all three experimental groups using universal and internal primers. We concluded from virus titration and sequencing results, that the adaptation of an avian H9N2 virus to pigs seems to work. We saw a gradual increase of virus titers in the lung of animals after serial passages. Nucleotide mutations have been found in seven genes analyzed, many of them also leading to amino acid substitutions. The third passage H9N2 isolate induced obvious lesions in pig lungs. This study was funded by TÜBİTAK and Kansas State University.
Keywords: Avian influenza virus, birds, mammals, adaptation, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2