Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2018, Pages 42–43
ISSN 2411-3174 (print version) ISSN 2411-0388 (online version)
FREQUENCY AND GENOTYPES OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS (AIV) AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS (NDV) IN MIGRATORY PASSERIFORM AND NONPASSERIFORM BIRDS, AND DUCKS IN ISTANBUL, TURKEY
Turan N. 1, Ozsemir C. 1, Yilmaz A. 1, Cizmecigil U. Y. 1, Aydin O. 1, Ozsemir K. 2, Ozsoy S. 2, Iqbal M. 3, Tali H. E. 1, Tekelioglu B. K. 4, Kutukcu A. 1, Richt J. A. 5, Yilmaz H. 1
2 Wild Life Clinic, Veterinary Faculty, University of Istanbul-Cerrahpasa, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
3 The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK
4 Department of Virology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Cukurova, Ceyhan, Istanbul, Turkey
5 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA email@example.com
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Citation for print version: Turan, N., Ozsemir, C., Yilmaz, A., Cizmecigil, U. Y., Aydin, O., Ozsemir, K., Ozsoy, S., Iqbal, M., Tali, H. E., Tekelioglu, B. K., Kutukcu, A., Richt, J. A. and Yilmaz, H. (2018) ‘Frequency and genotypes of Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in migratory passeriform and nonpasseriform birds, and ducks in Istanbul, Turkey’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety, 4(2), pp. 42–43.
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Citation for online version: Turan, N., Ozsemir, C., Yilmaz, A., Cizmecigil, U. Y., Aydin, O., Ozsemir, K., Ozsoy, S., Iqbal, M., Tali, H. E., Tekelioglu, B. K., Kutukcu, A., Richt, J. A. and Yilmaz, H. (2018) ‘Frequency and genotypes of Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in migratory passeriform and nonpasseriform birds, and ducks in Istanbul, Turkey’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. [Online] 4(2), pp. 42–43. Available at: http://jvmbbs.kharkov.ua/archive/2018/volume4/issue2/oJVMBBS_2018042_042-043.pdf
Avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are economically important viral diseases of birds, endemic in many countries. Both viruses can infect humans, but the H5 and H7 subtypes of AI viruses (AIVs) have caused devastating public and animal health problems worldwide. Both viruses are among the most important infectious disease problems in the poultry industry and new preventive and control strategies are urgently needed. ND virus (NDV) and particularly AIV spread via migratory birds, especially waterfowl, among birds within a country, between countries and even between continents. Importantly, the Republic of Turkey is geographically situated in one of the world’s most important migratory bird flyways.
In the present study, passeriform and nonpasseriform birds, and ducks were investigated for the presence and genotypes of AIVs and NDVs. For this purpose, field studies were performed with birds migrating on the South East European flyway, in the Marmara region of Turkey which borders the European Union. Traps were placed around the Kucukcekmece lake Avcilar, Istanbul, in the spring season of 2016 and 2017 to catch passeriform and nonpasseriform birds. The trapped birds were categorized according to species and sex, ringed and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were taken. In total, 200 oropharyngeal and 200 cloacal swabs were collected. In addition, in 2017, swabs from 80 green headed ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) were sampled by hunters in the Edirne area in Turkey, which is close to the Greek border. Also, swab samples from birds (n = 150) treated at the Wild life clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of Istanbul were analyzed. Laboratory investigations consisted of RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR analyses for the presence of AIV and NDV genetic signatures. Positive samples were further subjected to sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine genotypes of AIV and NDV in the targeted bird population. AIV-RNA was detected in 12 duck samples and two birds of prey and they all belonged to the H9N2 subtype of avian influenza viruses. NDV-specific RNA was found in two waterfowl samples and the viruses belong to the NDV lineage VII. Results of this study indicate that migratory birds present a threat for Turkey to spread both AIVs and NDVs.
Keywords: avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, migratory birds, genotypes, Turkey