Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety

Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages 22–26

ISSN 2411-3174 (print version) ISSN 2411-0388 (online version)


Sachuk R. M.

Research Epizootology Station of the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Rivne, Ukraine, е-mail:

Download PDF (print version)

Citation for print version: Sachuk, R. M. (2019) ‘Determination of toxicity indicators and assessment of the sensibilizing action of the preparation for the external use ‘Ointment for wounds’’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety, 5(3), pp. 22–26.

Download PDF (online version)

Citation for online version: Sachuk, R. M. (2019) ‘Determination of toxicity indicators and assessment of the sensibilizing action of the preparation for the external use ‘Ointment for wounds’’, Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. [Online] 5(3), pp. 22–26. DOI: 10.36016/JVMBBS-2019-5-3-5.

Summary. The purpose of the work is a determination of toxicity and sensitizing effects of a new external preparation ‘Ointment for wounds’, based on the essential oils of Siberian pine, eucalypt, tea-tree, cedar, clove, and oil solution of chlorophyllite. The experimental study was performed on rats weighing 160–190 g, 2–3 months of age and mice weighing 18–21 g, 3 months of age. At the stages of preclinical study, it was determined acute and subacute effects of the drug, when administrated on the skin and directly into the stomach of experimental animals. The skin-irritant effect of the phytopreparation was investigated when applied to the skin and buccal mucous membrane. The sensitizing effect of the ointment was evaluated by reproducing local reactions. The acute toxicity assessment was performed on the survival rate of laboratory animals after oral administration of the preparation at doses from 5,000 to 25,000 mg/kg of body weight, with 5,000 units increments. Subacute toxicity in the experiment was evaluated by the dynamics of morphological and biochemical parameters of blood and the study of the coefficients of laboratory animals’ internal organs mass. It was found that the introduction of the drug ‘Ointment for wounds’ in the stomach did not cause significant changes in the behavior of rats, all animals remained alive. Studies have shown the absence of skin-irritant effect of the preparation, as well as the absence of irritant effect on the buccal mucous membrane. Even in a long-term experiment to study subacute toxicity when applied to the skin, no toxic effects of the preparation on the basis of essential oils and oil solution chlorophyllite of were found. The index sensitizing effect of the preparation was less than one, indicating the absence of sensitizing effect. According to the classification of substances by toxicity and danger (requirements of SOU 85.2-37-736:2011 and GOST 12.1.007-76) belong to hazard class IV. In general, ‘Ointment for wounds’ does not have a toxic effect on the functions of vital organs, and at repeated administration is almost harmless

Keywords: essential oil, chlorophyllite, toxity, rats, mice, skin-irritant effect, sensitizing action, morphological composition of blood, transaminase activity


Abrashova, T. V., Gushchin, Ya. A., Kovaleva, M. A., Rybakova, A. V., Selezneva, A. I., Sokolova, A. P. and Khod’ko, S. V. (2013) Physiological, Biochemical and Biometric Indicators of the Norm of Experimental Animals [Fiziologicheskie, biokhimicheskie i biometricheskie pokazateli normy eksperimental’nykh zhivotnykh. Saint-Petersburg: Lema. ISBN 9785987096192. [in Russian]

Adnan, M. (2019) ‘Bioactive potential of essential oil extracted from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae)’, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(1), pp. 213–216. Available at:

Bennouna, F., Lekbach, Y., Sadiki, M., El Abed, S., Ibnsouda K, S. and Lachkar, M. (2018) ‘Antimicrobial efficacy of three essential oils against decaying cedar wood isolates’, Research Journal of Microbiology, 13(2), pp. 119–126. doi:

Bushuieva, I. V. (2013) ‘Marketing research on the development of the veterinary market and the field of veterinary pharmacy’ [Marketynhovi doslidzhennia rozvytku rynku veterynarnykh preparativ ta oblasti veterynarnoi farmatsii], Zaporozhye Medical Journal [Zaporozhskyi medytsynskyi zhurnal], 3, pp. 90–93. Available at: [in Ukrainian]

Carrión-Prieto, P., Martín-Gil, J., Fernández-Coppel, I., Ruíz-Potosme, N. and Martin-Ramos, P. (2018) 'Physicochemical studies of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) derived chewing gum', Trends in Phytochemical Research, 2(2), pp. 119–124. Available at:

CE (The Council of Europe). (1986) European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes. (European Treaty Series, No. 123). Strasbourg: The Council of Europe. Available at:

CEC (The Council of the European Communities). (1986) ‘Council Directive 86/609/EEC of 24 November 1986 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States regarding the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes’, The Official Journal of the European Communities, L 358, pp. 1–28. Available at:

Gerecke, U. (2005) Market Opportunities in Natural and Alternative Animal Health Products. Richmond: T&F Informa UK Ltd

Harkat-Madouri, L., Asma, B., Madani, K., Bey-Ould Si Said, Z., Rigou, P., Grenier, D., Allalou, H., Remini, H., Adjaoud, A. and Boulekbache-Makhlouf, L. (2015) ‘Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus from Algeria’, Industrial Crops and Products, 78, pp. 148–153. doi:

Horiuk, Yu. V. (2018) ‘Fagotherapy of Cows mastitis as an alternative to antibiotics in the system of obtaining environmentally safe milk’ [Fahoterapiia mastytu koriv, yak alternatyva antybiotykam v systemi oderzhannia ekolohichno bezpechnoho moloka], Scientific Messenger of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies [Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii. Seriia: Veterynarni nauky], 20(88), pp. 42–47. doi: [in Ukrainian]

Kosenko, M. V., Malyk, O. H., Kotsiumbas, I. Ya., Patereha, I. P. and Chura, D. O. (1997) Toxicological Control of New Means of Animal Protection: methodological recommendations [Toksykolohichnyi kontrol novykh zasobiv zakhystu tvaryn: metodychni rekomendatsii]. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].

Kotsiumbas, I. Ya., Malyk, O. H., Patereha, I. P., Tishyn, O. L. and Kosenko, Yu. M. (2006) Preclinical Studies of Veterinary Drugs [Doklinichni doslidzhennia veterynarnykh likarskykh zasobiv]. Lviv: Triada plus. ISBN 9667596648. [in Ukrainian]

Kozhemiakin, Yu. M., Khromov, O. S., Filonenko, M. A. and Saifetdinova, H. A. (2002) Scientific and Practical Recommendations for Laboratory Animals Keeping and Work with Them [Naukovo-praktychni rekomendatsii z utrymannia laboratornykh tvaryn ta roboty z nymy]. Kyiv: Avitsena. [in Ukrainian]

Li, M., Zhu, L., Liu, B., Du, L., Jia, X., Han, L. and Jin, Y. (2016) ‘Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia’, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 141, pp. 408–416. doi:

Packyanathan, S. J. and Prakasam, G. (2017) ‘Antibacterial effect of clove oil against clinical strains of Escherichia coli’, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 9(7), pp. 1203–1204. Available at:

Queiroga, M. C., Pinto Coelho, M., Arantes, S. M., Potes, M. E. and Martins, M. R. (2018) ‘Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Lamiaceae aromatic spices towards Sheep mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis’, Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 21(5), pp. 1155–1165. doi:

Sobrinho Santos, E. M., Almeida, A. C., Santos, H. O., Cangussu, A. R., Costa, K. S., Alves, J. N., Bertucci Barbosa, L. C. and Souza Aguiar, R. W. (2019) ‘Mechanism of Brassica oleracea performance in Bovine infectious mastitis by bioinformatic analysis’. Microbial Pathogenesis, 129, pp. 19–29. doi:

Shaheen, M., Tantary, H. A. and Nabi, S. U. (2016) ‘A treatise on Bovine mastitis: Disease and disease economics, etiological basis, risk factors, impact on human health, therapeutic management, prevention and control strategy’, Advances in Dairy Research, 4(1), p. 150. doi:

Shpatov, A. V., Popov, S. A., Salnikova, O. I., Kukina, T. P., Shmidt, E. N. and Um, B. H. (2017) ‘Composition and bioactivity of lipophilic metabolites from needles and twigs of Korean and Siberian pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc and Pinus sibirica Du Tour)’, Chemistry & Biodiversity, 14(2), p. e1600203. doi:

Smith, A. C., Wood, C. L., McQuerry, K. J. and Bewley, J. M. (2014) ‘Effect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows’, Journal of Dairy Science, 97(4), pp. 2498–2501. doi:

Tamminen, L.-M., Emanuelson, U. and Blanco-Penedo, I. (2018) ‘Systematic review of phytotherapeutic treatments for different farm animals under European conditions’, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, p. 140. doi:

Trakhtenberg, I. M., Sova, R. E., Sheftel’, V. O. and Onikienko, F. A. (1991) The Problem of Norm in Toxicology (Modern Concepts and Methodological Approaches, Basic Parameters and Constants) [Problema normy v toksikologii (sovremennye predstavleniya i metodicheskie podkhody, osnovnye parametry i konstanty)]. 2nd ed. Moscow: Meditsina. ISBN 5225003753. [in Russian]

Vorobets, N. M., Kryvtsova, M. V., Rivis, O. Y., Spivak, M. Y., Yavorska, H. V. and Semenova, H. M. (2018) ‘Antimicrobial activity of phytoextracts on opportunistic oral bacteria, yeast and bacteria from probiotics’, Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 9(3), pp. 374–378. doi:

Vysotskiy, A. E., Kuchinskiy, M. P., Birman, B. Ya., Giris, D. A., Bogush, A. A., Lysenko, A. P., Fomchenko, I. V., Krasochko, P. A., Lyakh, Yu. G., Finogenov, A. Yu., Ananchikov, M. A., Savel’eva, T. A. and Verigo, Yu. V. (2007) Methodological Guidelines for Toxicological Evaluation of Chemicals and Pharmacological Preparations Used in Veterinary Medicine [Metodicheskie ukazaniya po toksikologicheskoy otsenke khimicheskikh veshchestv i farmakologicheskikh preparatov, primenyaemykh v veterinarii]. Minsk: Vyshelessky Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine. [in Russian]

Wolski, T., Najda, A., Kędzia, B. and Wolska-Gawron, K. (2017) ‘Phytotherapy of dermatological diseases’ [Fitoterapia chorób dermatologicznych], Postępy Fitoterapii, 18(4), pp. 298–308. doi: [in Polish]